Adrian Underhill T itles in the series Activities for the Learning Teaching Teaching English Grammar aims to help teachers meet these demands by. Teaching English Grammar. What to Teach and How to Teach it. Jim Scrivener. MACMILLAN BOOKS FOR TEACHERS. Series Editor: Adrian Underhill. Contents About the series 4 About the authoi 5 Foreword 6 Introduction 7 Key grammatical terminology 14 The sounds of British English 18 1.
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Learning Teaching. - i. Jim Scrivener. Macmillan Books for Teachers. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Teaching English Grammar book. Read 5 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The perfect companion for both trainees and teacher trainer. online teacher portfolio. He is also the author of Teaching English Grammar which won the English Speaking Union Award for Best Entry for Teachers in
What do they need to think about example uncountable nouns: Tired househusband A man at home struggles to do the housework example uncountable nouns: Countable or uncountable? Invite students to work in groups to decide which words go into which box.
After some time, invite students to come up one by one and write words into boxes. Other students can agree or disagree with their decisions. Can you count. An even simpler teaching and checking activity is to ask questions to see if students can distinguish between nouns that can be counted and those which can't. Ask them cCan you count rain? Picture differences On one sheet of paper sheet A draw sketches of about fifteen countable and uncountable food items apples, loose rice, milk in a bottle, potatoes.
On another sheet of paper sheet B draw many of the same items - but with a few variations flour instead of apples. Make photocopies of sheet A and B. In class, make pairs, A and B. Give sheet A to As and sheet B to Bs. So have I etc. I went to the market If your students need a reminder, start by writing the alphabet on the board. Say 'I went to the market and I bought an apple.
Continue with other students trying to remember the list so far and then correctly adding their own item. As the list gets longer it will get harder and students will make more errors which results in more laughter. Make sure you encourage students to use a mix of both countable and uncountable nouns.
What does Hiro w7ant to download? Some books Do we know7how7many? Yes, three Can w7e count books? What does Sara want to download? Some rice Do we know7how much? No Watch out for these problems.. Countability is a separate issue from whether a word has a different plural or not. For example, sheep is the same word for singular and plural - but sheep are countable.
The Essential Guide to English
Be careful. Some uncountable nouns have an 5 ending and may look as if they are a plural countable noun eg tennis, news, politics, chess, physics, snakes and ladders, linguistics, athletics, measles, billiards, aerobics, economics, diabetes.
Here are some words that often cause problems: We can count suitcases but not luggage or baggage, rooms but not accommodation, cars but not traffic. X I saw an interesting news tonight. X You have beautiful hairs.
X Have you got any informations about the concert? X I forgot my homeworks. X Can you give me some advices? Make a second set of cards of uncountable foodstuffs toothpaste, wine, cheese, rice, tea, shampoo, ketchup, chocolate. Stick up the container cards on the left in a list going down the board.
Stick up the food cards in the middle column to make a separate list. When someone makes a suggestion, move the cards together in the right-hand column. Elicit the phrase a bottle of cheese and ask the class if they think it is a good combination or not. If you and the class agree that it is wrong, replace the cards to their original lists. If you agree that it is good a box of matches , leave them there.
This task might be a useful preparation for the Shopping lists activity. Practice In my cupboard Make pairs, A and B. Students start sentences for their partner to complete. B has to reply with a suitable item 28 Partners continue to challenge each other in this w7ay. Shopping lists Shopping lists are always good for this language point. Students can prepare for a party, first discussing and agreeing what they w7ill need We must get eight bottles of lemonade , then writing a shopping list, then role-playing going to the shop Two kilos offlour, please.
Shopping phonecalls Prepare a set of flashcards showing foods and other shopping items. Give five or six to each student.
What do I need? Ask students to wrrite a list of ingredients for a dish they know pizza but leave out the quantities.
They then meet up with other students and orally explain how to make the dish, adding in quantities Take half a kilo offlour. You need ten slices of pepperoni. Add a pinch of salt. What did Fernando drink? Some applejuice Do we know how much? What did Faisal eat? Bread Do we know how7much?
Yes - two slices Did he eat the wThole loaf? No Teaching tip: They have learnt that milk is uncountable and believe that this must be wTrong. Like many foodstuffs, milk can be both countable and uncountable. The same is true of many other nouns although food and drink are probably the most common. When it is countable we are usually counting the container or quantity two glasses of milk, or two packets of milk or two litres of milk - but we are not actually saying the container or quantity.
The container is implied rather than stated. I bought two teas means I bought two cups of tea. Ordering two teas is only possible if the listener will unambiguously understand what container is referred to. Similarly, you can count collections, pieces, parts, bits, quantities or weights of things ten packs ofpaper,five bundles of wheat, two kilos of rice, three pieces of information,four news items, afew drops of whisky, a bit ofgood luck, a little rain, enough pasta.
Countable U ncountable Two coffees, please. We use them to avoid repetition. The machine's broken. It isn't working properly. Subject pronouns The subject of a sentence is the person or thing that does the action of a verb. I woke up at about 3 am. You need a dictionary. It isn't working. We lived in the room above the shop.
They offered her ajob. Object pronouns Direct objects The direct object of a sentence is the person or thing that the action of a verb is done to. It often comes directly after the verb. I called him Iher. We bought it. They saw us. Let's ask them. Indirect objects The indirect object of a sentence is a person or thing that the action of the verb is done for or given to - but not the person or thing.
Bring m e the towel. I gave you the book. She bought him an MP3 player. I showed her the rules. We threw it a biscuit. They sang us a new song. Give them a chance. For example, Bring me a towel. What did he bring? A towel - this is the direct object.
Who did he bring it to for? Me - this is the indirect object. Give an instruction using a direct object drop it, throw it, hide it,punch it. Do a little mime to help the student follow the instruction if they have a problem. Indirect objects In the same lesson. Indicate student B and give an instruction to student A using an indirect object Give her the pen. Student A must follow the instruction and hand the pen on to Student B.
B then throws the pen to C. When possible, encourage students to use the instructions themselves without prompts. Jobs and roles Subject pronouns 1 Hand flashcards showing various locations a hospital, Moscow to different students. Explain that the pictures show their lives. They live in Moscow. Get students to repeat sentences. They live in Vienna.
Reference At higher levels, the biggest problems tend to come with recognising wiiat a particular pronoun especially it refers to in a complex sentence or text. To tackle this, get students to go through a text, drawing boxes around all instances of a pronoun every it - and then drawing lines back to the word or words that the pronoun refers to. Concept questions Subject pronouns Write these notes on the board. Object pronouns Write these notes on the board.
They are cooking a meal. Meaning and use Backward reference Pronouns generally refer backwards to things that have already been mentioned. The word him refers back to Jack. Forward reference Pronouns can also more rarely refer forwards to things that have not yet been mentioned.
He refers forward to Tony, which has not been given before this point. Pronouns are only useful if it is absolutely clear what they refer to. In the following short text, the referent ie the person or thing that is referred to of the pronoun is not entirely clear. Is it the snake, the bedcover or the arm? The snake slid over the bedcover and curled round his arm.
I carefully lifted it up. Other uses Apart from the standard meanings, pronouns have some other important uses. It's raining Isn't it a pity? I really like it in this cafe. It would be hard to say precisely what the it referred to in these sentences. You never see men at these conferences any more. They knocked it down in When the interviewee comes in, give them a copy of the test. This may be to avoid saying things that might seem personally embarrassing but this use of one is a little old-fashioned.
This use is unlikely to be encountered by beginners. Watch out for these problems. X I saw Eva and he told me.
Teaching English Grammar
Place two silhouette images on the classroom wall - a male and a female figure. When students use the wrong pronoun, simply point at the wrong image, look worried and w7ait for them to correct themselves! X Mr Salmon he gave it to me. X The picture it is very nice. In the sentence She gives the man some cash the direct object is some cash - the thing immediately affected by the action of giving.
I rewired the house myself. Make yourself comfortable! He repaired the window himself. My brother does all the paperwork him self She locked herself in. The door opens by itself. WeyUdo it ourselves. I hope the children behave themselves. The twins are only three, but they can aheady dress themselves. These refer back to the subject of the verb. Reflexive pronouns can be used when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same I cried myself to sleep or to emphasise the subject We ate all the cake ourselves.
We use each other or one another to say that each person does something to the other or others. They talk to each other on the phone every night. Ouryoungest boy can already dress himself.
Presentation Model each sentence yourself first, get students to repeat and then try saying it in pairs as question and answ7er.
Did Georgi do your homework? I did it myself! Did the other class arrange the chairs like this? We did it ourselves!
Practice This item is quite hard to practise communicatively. It may be best to focus on traditional pen and paper exercises, finding the correct pronoun to fill in the gap in a sentence. Planning decisions Ask students to imagine that they are wrorking on a big project changing to a different classroom.
Brainstorm a list of about ten tasks that need to be done move all the books. The teachers can move their stationery themselves. Mary will design thefloor plan by herself You can do thatyourself! Who did the homework? Sharzia Did she do it with someone else? No Did she have any help? Who repaired the car? Darina Did Miguel repair the car? No Did Darina repair the car? Yes Did she do it with someone else?
No Meaning and use We use reflexive pronouns when the subject and the object are the same. I cleaned myself up and got readyfor dinner. In this sentence I and myself are the same person. Using a reflexive pronoun can dramatically change the meaning.
He tried to kill him describes an attempted murder. He tried to kill himself describes an attempted suicide. In imperatives, the subject you is understood but not said. Phone him yourself We can use many verbs that take an object with a reflexive pronoun.
He cut himselfshaving. If wre want to emphasise that someone does something without help, wre use a reflexive pronoun at the end of a clause. I decorated the whole room myself! We use reciprocal pronouns to say that each person did the same action to another or others. Jacques and Frida painted pictures of each other means that Jacques painted a picture of Frida and Frida painted a picture ofJacques.
Jacques and Frida painted pictures of themselves means that Jacques painted a picture ofJacques and Frida painted a picture of Frida or they both pointed pictures of both of them. X I was starting to enjoy myself.
X The two men introduced themselves and shook hands. X I feel myself very comfortable at the moment. X Theyfelt themselves quite ill.
X People were hugging and kissing themselves. My, your, his, her, its, our, their come before a noun phrase. Presentation 39 People's presents 1 Place some cartoon pictures of three people on the board Marc, Lena and Ben. Add a picture of a shop with some desirable items an iPod, a camera, a book, a watch.
As you tell the story, keep pausing and interrupting yourself as if you are forgetting the story to ask lots of little questions Is it his? Is it hers now? Whose is it? Get students to ask questions like yours. Practice Circle practice Ask everyone to stand in one large circle or, if your class is too large, keep them at their desks. Give each student a flashcard or small object a pen. Continue adding more items. More complex circle practice You can fairly easily vary or extend the simple drills in the idea above to make use of more complex sentences and possessive pronouns as well as adjectives Is this your pen?
Give it to him. Is this your pen? Yes, it's mine. Don't give it to her;give it to me. For maximum confusion, you could also have different objects being passed simultaneously! Variation Teach a number of different verbs pass, throw, give and some adverbs slowly, angrily, secretly and get students using them to pass on the items in this manner passing secretly, throwing quickly. Cut the pictures up so that possessions are separated from the people. Students work to match pictures and describe the relationships This is hers.
That's theirs. Students should not see what others contribute. Make a museum on a large table at the front of the room by displaying the items in an interesting way. Is that his? Is that your pen?
Invite pairs of students to visit the museum. They can wralk around and look at objects and discuss the objects.
Encourage them to guess wThich items belong to which students. When students have had some discussion in pairs, lead a whole class discussion still using the pronouns to agree which objects belong to which students.
Is thatyours? Story building Bring in lots of small real objects or pictures of them and pictures of some people. If they find it tough, suggest that they include dialogue in their story. Is this my book? No Is this your book? No Is this his book? No Is this her book? Yes Who does the book belong to? This is hers Adapt this model for This is mine, This is ours etc. Meaning and use Belonging Possessives often tell us who things belong to.
Ours is the third house on the left. Relationship They can also be used to indicate a relationship. Isn't thatyour Uncle Gunter?
Thatfriend ofyours - what's her name again? I do my own cooking andfood shopping. This letter is in her own handwriting. Connection Sometimes they indicate other types of connection or association knowing something, having responsibility, doing an action, special occasions etc. Does he know his ABC? His birthday is two days after mine.
Our guide was a quiet man in hisforties. The couple who booked into the hotel were both in their twenties. Body parts We use possessives to talk about parts of the body. Her lips met mine. Comparisons We can use possessives to compare possessions, qualities, attributes etc between different people.
There was barely a scratch on his car, but mine was wrecked. Your system is completely differentfrom ours. X This great country of us ours. X Ts this Mary's book? This is my calculator. We use this and that with singular countable nouns and uncountable nouns this evidence that cup We use these and those with plural nouns.
For most of this month. We can also use this, that, these and those on their own, as pronouns substituting for a noun or noun phrase. Not this again! That was a real surprise. Place these visibly in different locations around the room. Some things should be close to individuals or groups of students and some further away. This student should recap what the previous student said changing the demonstrative if necessary and then adding to it That's Dmitri's calculator and that's my scarf.
Practice Open spot the difference Find two pictures of the kind that are commonly used for pair information gap exercises ie two similar but slightly different pictures. Place picture A on the board blow7it up much larger if possible - or project it on a computer, interactive whiteboard or OHP. Give a copy of picture B to each pair of students. Their aim is to discuss the differences, then write down them in a list, using this, that, these, those This table has five apples on it but that one only has four.
These people are wearing hats but those aren't. Students will need to use this and these for the picture closest to them and that and those are for the more distant board picture. Am I holding my pen when I say this? No Is my pen very near me? No Is my pen in another town? No Is my pen in another room?
No Can I see my pen? Yes Can I point at my pen? Do I have one friend or more than one friend? More than one Are my friends in another building? No Are my friends in the same room?
Yes Are my friends on the other side of the room? Probably not Are my friends standing or sitting near me? Yes Do I move my hand when I say the sentence? Probably, indicating the people near me 44 These and those We use these and those to refer to plural items. They usually identify things visible to the speaker which could be pointed at or indicated. We often do this when showing pictures or objects or when introducing people to each other.
We choose which word to use depending on how near to us we think an item is. We use this and these when something is considered close. We use that and those when something is further away. This is a subjective choice rather than a factual measurement and either form can often be used without substantially changing the meaning.
This is the total price ofyour holiday. These are my friends Claudia and Jack. Those must be our seats over there. Reference within text conversation We can use demonstratives to refer backwards or forwards to things that are mentioned in other parts of a conversation or text. X This myfriend.
X Those books mine. TUeve ave always lots of people tUeve. Construct the text carefully so that the article usage exemplifies the points you wish to teach. Discuss and confirm answers. Elicit or state reasons for article choice as issues come up.
Answers Every day I walk to the town centre. There are always lots of 0 people there. I usually download an ice cream, a packet of 0 sweets and a newspaper.
Then I go to the beach and sit on a bench reading the newspaper. Sometimes I look up at the clouds in the sky and w7atch the seagulls flying over the sea. Practice The classic practice activity for articles has always been the humble gap-fill text made either on a computer or with correction fluid.
Students then work individually or in pairs to fill in the missing articles. Text reordering Many teachers will be familiar with tasks in which students are asked to reorder a text that has had its sentences mixed up - but may have been unsure as to exactly what the point of such tasks might be. Well, one really sound purpose is to help students focus on the use of articles to shape a conversation or text. Write up the following sentences on the board or photocopy them and ask students wrorking in pairs to find the best order.
Tell them that sentence a is in the correct position at the beginning of the story. When they have got the correct answer a , d , b , e , c ask them to reflect a little on how they worked it out. Check that students know the word lion maybe showr a photo of one. Write the following frame on the board and tell students that it is a conversation in a zoo.
Ask pairs to fill every gap with either lions, a lion or the lion. Hey, look. Where did. When you check answers at the end, discuss why each form is used. Get students to practise acting the dialogue, encouraging them to use lively intonation. Afterwards, challenge students to write a new short dialogue set in a new location that uses all the nouns in one of these sets of words: What does the baby want?
A toy Does it matter which one I give it?
The toy Does it matter which one I give it? Yes, it wants a specific one - possibly one that it can see now Meaning and use There are two key reasons why a speaker or writer may choose indefinite or definite articles. General or specific? The indefinite articles a and an show that we are talking about things in a general way - without saying precisely which people or items we are referring to to a whole type, class, species or variety of something.
It stands out in a crowd ie any crowd - not a specific crowd. You need a dictionary ie any dictionary, not a specific one. Children must be accompanied by an adult ie any adult, not a specific one. The definite article the shows that we are talking about something specific - when we know precisely who or what is being referred to an individual person or thing.
The food smells wonderful ie not food in general, but the particular food we can smell now. New focus or known focus? The second means that I want a specific biscuit, and both listener and speaker know7exactly which one is referred to. But, what about this short text?
Round the corner was a ruined barn - and, next to the building, a tall oak. The tree had lost all its leaves. The brown and orange litter covered theflowerbeds. Would your students know. In many conversations and text, there will be different articles used at different points in the text.
You will find that there is often a movement as shown in this diagram: Here are further guidelines: A dog needs regular exercise.
Consider this sentence: Students get the word order of much too mixed up: Students often wrongly assume that they are used to make a exaggerated positive meaning. The word much intensi es the adjective or adverb. Watch out for these problems. The box was too heavy for him to pick up He wasn't strong enough to pick up the box. We use too to: We left early because it was too hot I thought I could do it but it was too difficult for me.
Pronunciation The strong forms of too and to are the same. Learners often use sentences like this with a positive intention. The bus left three minutes too early and I missed it. Taking secondary stresses into account.
Although this is a possible English sentence. Each of these sentences is stronger than the one before. Students use too much instead of too. That dessert was too delicious to leave on my plate. This food is too dry. Now it is clear that the negative meaning is associated with having to leave the museum. Many positive too sentences can be changed into negative enough sentences.
He goes to the shops every Thursday. He walks to the bus stop and waits for the number bus. There is an -s ending on the verb for third person singular. Simple discrimination and sorting games are often suitable. He gets up at 7. Get students to make their own diaries and repeat the task in pairs. Students should come to the board and place the word in the correct column with discussion.
Diego wakes up every day at 7. Presentation Variation: She drives back home on Sunday morning. He has a shower. Note also. Elicit sentences about the routine. We use -ies to replace the y when the base form ends in a consonant followed by y. Daily routines 1 Tell or elicit a story using board pictures or ashcards getting students to repeat each sentence. Practice Spelling and pronunciation Make sure your students get some basic activities that focus on spelling and pronunciation.
He leaves his house at 8. She meets her mother and they play tennis together. I carry a heavy bag. Despite its name.
Your hair feels so soft. Elicit from students the different lifestyles and routines of these characters. We live at 23 Brook eld Avenue. Just buzz me when the client arrives. Is this a fact? Yes Is it always true? Yes Was it true last week? Yes Was it true ten thousand years ago? Yes Will be it be true in the year ? Yes 3 States. She smokes 50 cigarettes a day.
The river ows in a south-westerly direction. Here the land rises and falls in gentle hills. I can send it to you by email if you give me your address.
I walk a lot. I feel sorry for him. Is she in the bank NOW? Unit 57 First conditional Uses We use the present simple to talk about. Students must guess which sentences are false.
What sport does Henri like? Football Does he play often? Probably Is he playing football NOW? Who can guess the job rst? Has Ildiko got a job?
Yes What is her job? She works in the bank Does she work there on Monday? This tea tastes funny. My sister lives next door. Past Now Future Meaning and use Core meaning Things which we think of as generally true and unlimited in time ie without a beginning or an ending. The London train gets in at I usually play in defence. Past Now Future Spot the lies game Read out ten present simple sentences about yourself.
Eight should be true and two false I read three newspapers every day. Anita works at the laundrette. Base forms are listed in the rst column of a standard verb table. Help them by pointing out that words like cooks and walks are one syllable but they are using two. Students omit the third person -s ending: Beckham kicks to Ronaldo.
We also use the -es spelling misses. Students use do and does unnecessarily: When used by low level students. Teaching tip: He does live there! Students mispronounce the -s ending: Students will omit the -s ending.
President bans Union 8 Live commentary especially of sports events. Using the present simple to talk about things happening NOW Other than uses 4 and 8 above.
Try gentle reminders when they forget: Point out that the rst column shows the base form and can help them select verbs. This bear walks into a petrol station and says. She does walk to school. Macmillan Books for Teachers The titles in the Macmillan Books for Teachers series have been written to inform teachers worldwide.
He is a training consultant and coach in leadership development. All of the titles have been written by leaders in their fields. They are insightful and practical books. Our series editor is Adrian Underhill Adrian works with educators in many countries on the development of continuous professional learning programmes.
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Teaching English Grammar
Related titles. A course in english language teaching - Penny Ur. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Erald Kumrija. Ariel Sandoval. Sabin Patru. Manuela Chira Cristina.Body parts We use possessives to talk about parts of the body. It's much too hot for me to drink! X Ts this Mary's book? They compare pictures and sentences.
Creating the right challenge level may, for example, involve the teacher varying the difficulty of questions as they ask different people around the class. An exam ple In this book, I have included some concept questions for a number of grammatical items.
Practice If you are teaching at very low levels, you will need to adjust your classroom language to suit the level.
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